Oncological diseases have been known since ancient times and the number of diseases of this type, Apparently, It increased with the increase in life expectancy. The real explosion, however, has to do with the invention of antibiotics, Which significantly extended people’s lives and gave them an opportunity, Lived in that number before the onset of cancer, Whatever we see today. As a result,, Separate registration of oncological diseases was started. about, 1950-Since the January years mankind has become much more informed about it, What disease it is and what are the dynamics of death from it.
Why is this disease called cancer?
The disease was originally named after Hippocrates, When a breast tumor is found and it karkinos-I called, Which comes from the word "crab". no one knows, Why did the tumor look like a crab, However, the term was included in his papers. Later, the Roman physician Celsus mistranslated the Greek word for "crab" when translating the writings of Hippocrates., As the Latin "cancer" (cancer). This word entered all European languages and then Georgian.
How do the stages of cancer differ from each other??
Stages of oncological disease – Is a historical term. Actually, It does not develop into stages: Some types of disease may not have any early stages, others – They can never reach the fourth stage, And some "jump" directly from the first to the fourth. Until recently Cancer Only the anatomical classification of the stages was obtained, Which if we simplify too much looks like this:
The first stage – Small tumor within a specific organ and no metastases in local lymph nodes, Nor individual metastases;
The second stage – A medium-sized tumor within the body, Metastases to local lymph nodes, There are no separate metastases;
The third stage – Large tumor formation within the body, Metastases are in multiple lymph nodes;
The fourth stage – The tumor extends beyond the body and is a separate metastasis (The, The status of the lymph nodes is no longer important).
However the end of the stage In the classification Not only anatomy is considered, But also the direct biological properties of the tumor – His aggression.
Thanks to scientific advances, In some cases, remission is also possible in the metastatic form of certain oncological diseases. It depends on the complexity of the characteristics of the drug therapy and the modern possibilities. for example, available Metastatic form of testicular cancer (This was the first victory for oncologists) Or thyroid gland Metastatic in shape Complete remission. Prolonged remission can be achieved today in many types of metastatic cancer, However, it is not available to everyone in the old days.
Why do some people develop cancer so quickly?, Some even – not?
A lot of things are about tumor malignancy (grade) Dependent. This concept is determined by the amount of mutations accumulated by the tumor and the characteristics of the corresponding diseases.. The rate at which these mutations accumulate depends on many factors. for example, They are one of the most "evil" oncological diseases, Which arise against the background of a mutation inherited from the Deenem repair genes, Or genes, Which disrupt other genes (Mutations) “Repair” They know and thus stabilize the genome. Disruption of genes, Who are trying to "repair" other genes, Causes rapid accumulation of mutations in the tumor and results – Rapid development of the tumor. for example, Mutation of BRCA genes (He has Angelina Jolie) – It is the disruption of reparation genes.
Much is already known about the behavioral mechanisms of tumors, But people do not know much about it – Doctors in the old days often could not influence the biology of the tumor. However,, Most recently, Changing tumor biology was out of the realm of science fiction.
Why more and more people are getting cancer, Including many young people?
Actually, Statistically, there is no obvious trend of "cancer rejuvenation". feeling, That there are many young patients around, Apparently, Related to that, That thanks to social networks this type of information is more accessible. Besides, Years ago cancer was a kind of stigmatized disease, Which they avoided talking about, Which has changed today.
Why do people with cancer die??
We must remember, That a person with cancer can be cured freely and 30 After a year, for example, To die of a heart attack. But if you talk about it, How a person dies, If he can not be cured, It depends on the biological characteristics and the location of the tumor. For the first time, tumors can kill a person, If they are in vital organs (For example in the brain) And prevents them from working.
However,, Even if the tumor is in such an organ or tissue, That they can be excised, It does not mean healing – The tumor spreads in the form of metastases in the body. of course, Metastases can also be removed (Which they often do), But if the tumor has the necessary properties, It will sooner or later spread to that organ or tissue, Which cannot be excised (for example, Metastases in the brain or multiple metastases). A person can also die from the disease, Which is actually derived from oncology: Pneumonia develops from a disease of the weakened immune system, Which the organism can no longer fight, Causing people to die.
In other words, There is no universal mechanism for the death of patients from oncological diseases – Each case is still individual, They have only some general features in common.
Cancer is always accompanied by severe pain?
This issue most often concerns both patients and healthy people, Which is understandable, But the truth is, That most oncological diseases in the early stages of development are not pain, But there is no feeling at all. However,, If the tumor or its metastases are growing, It can and does develop chronic pain syndrome.
Cancer is contagious?
Science Not familiar with cases, When oncological disease people are airborne, Were transmitted fecally-orally or sexually. But viruses and bacteria are contagious, which Belong to carcinogens, Or factors, Which contribute to the development of oncological diseases. Such are, for example:
Human papilloma viruses. Some of its species significantly increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (Cervix, Sexual organ, Anal canal, Esophagus, etc.) Development risk;
Human immunodeficiency virus, Which increases Kaposi's sarcoma and several other types of oncological disease, Including the risk of cervical cancer;
Hepatitis B and C viruses, Which increase the risk of liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma);
Epstein-Barr virus, Which contributes to the development of some types of lymphoma and esophageal cancer;
Bacteria Helicobacter pylori, Which provokes stomach cancer;
The good news is, That of human papilloma viruses and Hepatitis B. Can be vaccinated against, And H. Antibiotics are effective against pylori.
By blood transfusion or (Of the patient) Organ transplantation can prevent cancer?
It is very difficult to acquire oncological disease with a transplanted organ or transfused blood. This is actually confirmed by the 1960s (Not ethical) Studies, When patients were injected with other people’s cancer cells. However some probability remains. It has to do with that, That patients are prescribed therapy after organ transplantation, Which suppresses immunity. And if under normal conditions the organism would not receive a tumor of foreign origin, This can happen during immunosuppressive therapy. Such cases are known. So to all donors (Even after death) Check for the presence of actively spreading tumors. Besides, People do not implant organs simply and for pleasure: Because it happens, This is a necessity and the benefits of transplantation outweigh the risk of delaying oncological diseases.. During transplantation, Other, There are much more serious risks, Which do not belong to oncology and patients should be much more interested in them.
Cancer is hereditary?
Oncological diseases are genetic, But not by inheritance: Inheritance can only be inherited, Which increases the risk of oncological disease, But not the disease itself.
Overall, If we observe for a long time 100 people, Whose blood relatives were ill with cancer and 100 people, Who had no such relatives, The disease rate will be higher in that group of people, Whose relatives were ill. According to statistics, The risk increases, But oncological diseases are common and that blood relative he had, likely, Is random and not related to mutation, Which is inherited.
Concerns about inheritance of mutations The following are the events:
Oncologically ill with several blood relatives in a single line (That is, only from the mother or only from the father);
Blood relatives with cancer 50 At the age of;
Several different types of oncological disease in first-line relatives (father mother, sister and brother, Son / daughter);
"Oncological disease without a risk factor" in first-line blood relatives (Lung cancer in non-smokers, Breast cancer in men);
Any such event should push a person to consult a medical geneticist, Who will be able to discuss the issue of genetic testing for mutations, Because it is associated with the risk of developing oncological diseases.
Cancer can occur in an unborn or newborn baby?
this Very rare Cases can be detected during fetal ultrasound examination. But such tumors are not usually detected before birth – Sometimes they learn about them in the first years of a child's life. The, Often referred to as neuroblastomas – On tumors, Which come from nerve tissue: They can be in different organs. also It is a great rarity, That a pregnant woman transmits malignant cells to her child.
Depression or stress can cause cancer?
no way Convincing evidence of that, Which psychological stress or depression can lead to oncological diseases. However often people, Which are subject to stress, Towards dangerous behavior Are prone (To the use of excess alcohol, Excessive smoking and eating), Which can freely increase the risk of oncological diseases.
What food affects the development of cancer?
Aspiration is understandable, To protect ourselves from oncological diseases easily and with one hand stroke by refusing something. And indeed, There are proven "diet tricks", Which reduce the risk of developing cancer. for example, Recommended
– Less intake of red meat and processed meat products;
– Getting whole grain products;
– Eat more vegetables and fruits;
– Reduce the caloric content of the ration;
And it is true too, That vegetarians Rarely develop Some oncological diseases. Meanwhile, Information about it often appears in the press, That for example, "Milk increases the risk of cancer", And soon "milk reduces the risk of cancer". At such times it is unclear how to behave. There are several considerations for a common approach to such recommendations:
first of all, The effect of changing the ration is not absolute, That is, the risk is reduced, But it is not equal to zero; Second, Tens of thousands of people would notice this effect, at least, 10 Or more years must pass; The third, The vast majority of similar studies have been performed on plants and laboratory animals and have not been confirmed in humans.. Besides, Many studies contradict each other.
It is necessary to take into account, That as soon as doctors and researchers become suspicious about the carcinogenic effects of any product, They immediately share it with the general public and launch campaigns.
How to reduce the risk of developing cancer?
European Code Against Cancer Is a collection of tips, Which has been proven to reduce the risk of developing oncological diseases. Here are the top tips from this collection:
2. Do not smoke Others in your home and workplace.
3. Pay attention to your weight.
4. Move more and sit less in one place.
5. Eat healthy food.
6. Get less alcohol. It is better, If you give it up at all.
7. Avoid sunbathing and Sunburn, Especially in children. Use sunscreen. Do not go to the solarium.
8. Try not to deal with carcinogens at work. Follow occupational safety instructions.
9. Check the natural radiation background in your home. If he is high – Try to reduce it.
10. For women:
Breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing cancer in mothers. If you can breastfeed your baby; Hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of oncological diseases. Try not to use this therapy.
11. Children with acne: Against hepatitis C. (For newborns); Against human papillomavirus (For girls).
12. Get involved in organized screening programs (There are such free programs in Georgia).
I can test all types of cancer at once?
The fear of being diagnosed with cancer is absolutely understandable and a natural reaction – Active protection. Many consider active protection to be detected at an early stage of oncological disease. The problem though is, That early detection does not always make sense. The international consensus at this point is as follows, That for screening for oncological diseases (For diagnosis at the asymptomatic stage) Only four of the following types of cancer are considered appropriate: Cervical cancer; Colorectal cancer (Large and rectum); Breast cancer; lung cancer.
The, There is no single test for all of these cancers. Blood tests on oncomarkers are not an adequate method of cancer screening – Oncomarkers often point to cancer there, Where he is not and vice versa. Nowhere in the world is it used for screening.
There is a pre-cancer condition and ways to prevent it?
For some tumors, there is a precancerous condition (This is the case with cervical and colon cancers), However, in the case of other tumors, such a condition is much more difficult to diagnose (Breast cancer, Pancreatic cancer, etc.) Treating some pre-cancerous conditions can really prevent the development of this disease, Such as cutting out colon polyps or getting rid of cervical dysplasia.
A benign tumor can transform into a malignant one?
A few decades ago it was really thought, That benign tumors would transform into malignant. Now it has been found out, That it seems, It is a rare exception, Than the rule. Hysteromyoma, Many new growths in the breast and liver, Ovarian cysts do not transform malignantly.
It's another matter, That sometimes, According to diagnostic test data, It is difficult to distinguish a benign tumor from a malignant one. Sometimes it even requires diagnostic surgery.
Why can't they make a potion, Which completely cures cancer?
The term "oncological diseases" includes hundreds of diseases, Which are very different from each other. Let's take one oncological disease, Its characteristics may be very different in different patients. more, Over time, the signs of the disease may change with one particular patient. Thus, The choice of treatment depends on many factors and can be worked on by specialists of completely different profile and direction..
The problem is that too, That the tumor can not be "simply cut out". Such an idea is logical if we consider it, That the disease is local and does not harm the whole organism, But in most cases this is not the case. Sometimes the patient only has surgery, But often cancer, Which can be seen, May be just the tip of the iceberg, And the disease affects the whole organism. Medications are also helpful, If they become more effective, But not all medicines are suitable for everyone, Sometimes there is resistance to them. Forcing your body to fight cancer, Which is the basis of immunotherapy, A really good idea with its universality, But in practice we still see it, That immunotherapy does not work for all patients and all types of tumors. Apparently because, That different types of tumors interact differently with the immune system.
How to avoid recurrence from cancer?
This is most understandable and likely for patients and physicians, Is the most common concern. That is why doctors are very careful when prescribing many medications, Of such, Such as for example: Estrogens in breast cancer or endometriosis, Immunosuppressive drugs for almost all malignancies.
There is no recipe for that though, That a person avoids relapses with the help of a special lifestyle or diet. The thing is, That the likelihood of tumor recurrence largely depends on two factors: On the characteristics of the tumor and the treatment carried out, This is – It is already past.